When an internal content of the abdomen, be it an intestine or omentum or organ leaves its original position and comes out through a defect or weak spot in the sheath/ muscle of the abdominal wall containing it, it causes a swelling in that particular area. This swelling is called a hernia.
This swelling could be over the tummy, groin, thigh or hiatus in the diaphragm and is named accordingly.
When the swelling is around the umbilicus. Umbilical hernias are seen at all ages even at birth. These hernias more commonly seen in women and even more common after childbirth. When the contents reduce it is called a reducible hernia. When the contents don’t reduce into the abdominal cavity, it is called an irreducible hernia.
When the swelling is seen in the upper abdomen in the midline, between the xiphisternum and the umbilicus. The content of this hernia is mostly fat, very rarely it may contain the colon which is the large intestine.Read More
When the swelling in the upper thigh. These are not very common.Read More
When the swelling is in the groin it is called an inguinal hernia. It could be on one groin (unilateral inguinal hernia) or both groins (bilateral inguinal hernia). This is one of the commonest hernias seen both in males and females more common in females who are obese.
Inguinal hernia is of two types-
Direct inguinal hernia- The swelling over the groin is globular just over the Hesselbachs triangle.
Indirect Inguinal hernia: Initially, the swelling may be seen just in the groin region , but as it increases in size, the swelling appears in the scrotal region also called the inguinoscrotal hernia
When the swelling appears in the area or vicinity of previous surgery or scar, we term it as an incisional hernia.
The scar could be that of an appendicectomy, or gall bladder surgery, hysterectomy ( uterus removal), caesarean section scar etc.
When one undergoes abdominal surgery, all the layers of the abdominal wall are cut. This may cause weakness in that area if not properly closed or if not properly healed. The reasons could be wound infection, or excessive coughing, sneezing during the previous surgery.
Obesity is one of the major reasons for developing incisional hernias.
The umbilical, paraumbilical and incisional hernia come under this terminology.Read More
When the upper stomach leaves the abdomen and enters through the hiatus in the diaphragm in the thoracic cavity it is called a hiatus hernia.Read More
The complication of hernia is not uncommon if left untreated for a long time. The following are the complications:
This is the best and most sure treatment for a hernia. It was earlier done by the open technique, but now with the advance in technology, laparoscopic repair is the surgical treatment of choice for a hernia. All hernias can be treated by the laparoscopic technique.
The advantage of laparoscopic repair is multiform, lesser hospital stay, less pain, cosmetic, early recovery 24 hours, early return to work
Laparoscopic Mesh repair of hernia
Mesh is a must whether we chose the open or laparoscopic technique.
You can see that the port placement differs depending on the type of hernia that needs to be repaired. Also the size of the ports is 5mm( two ports) and 10mm ( one port)
Inguinal hernia can be repaired laparoscopically by TEP method
Inguinal hernia can be repaired laparoscopically by the TAPP method
Laparoscopic technique has a benefit over the open repair, in such case, where in we get a complete view from within and even if 2 to 4 defects are present , it will not be missed. In open technique this could be missed
Certain precautions should be taken so that hernia repair is good and does not recur.
>Note : The surgeon will suggest the appropriate type of surgery based on the location and severity of your hernia.
The cost of Hernia surgery depends on many factors depending on Open/ Laparoscopic Surgery like